Peru covers 1,285,216 Km. It embraces three regions: coast, highland and jungle.
Although this simple division is a fair portrait of Peru’s geography, the reality is much richer and far more complex: in Peru, nature appears to have taken on particular characteristics which have turned its mountains, plains, jungles and valleys into unique habitats.
An extraordinary variety of eco-systems shelters a wide diversity of animals and plants.
Coast – The coast is 2,500 Km in length with a maximum width of 200 Km to the north and 40 Km to the south: The greatest concentration of the population is centered in the south.
Highland – The Andes, the mountainous range, which is the most extensive in the world, cuts through Peru from north to south.
Jungle – This enormous region, lush and green as no other, it is the region that is at least populated of Peru.
The official language of Peru is the Spanish, and in the areas where prevail are also the Quechua, Aymara and other aboriginal languages.
As part of its rich cultural tradition, Peru features many different languages. Although Spanish is commonly spoken across the country, Quechua is a major legacy of the Inca empire, and is still spoken with regional dialects in many parts of Peru.
In addition, other languages are spoken such as Aymara (in Puno) and a startling variety of dialects in the Amazon jungle, which are divided up into 15 linguistic families and 43 different languages.
The hour in Peru is -5 GMT (UT)
In the whole Peruvian territory rules the same hour, without hour change in any time of the year. Lima, capital of Peru, is located in 77° 07′ W, 12º 04′ S.
It is curious that the difference of relief can modify the climate of a region.
The climate of the coastal region (Lima, Trujillo) – From April to September is the coldest period. It is hot in the summer mornings and between the end of December and March the sky is clear. During the night, it can become somewhat cool, thereby making it necessary to wear a jacket.
The climate of the Andes (Mountains) – There are two distinct seasons, marked by the presence or lack of rain. The rainy season is between November and March, with frequent and heavy rainfall which can last some hours, especially during the afternoon. The dry season is characterized by a blue sky during the day. The temperatures remain comfortable while there is sunshine, but it is generally cool at sunrise and sunset.
Jungle Climate (Amazon Rain Forest) – As in the Hight Andes (mountains), there are also two seasons: one from November to May, during which it rains practically every day, for various hours, and another from June to October, known as the dry season, when heavy but short periods of rain can fall. The climate of the jungle is essentially characterized by humidity that varies from between 80% to 100%, depending on the seasons, and the temperature, which varies little.